Bluetooth

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This page will give you all the informations needed to have a running Bluetooth configuration on your Armadeus board.

Hardware

First you have to get a compatible hardware. Currently there are 5 solutions:

  • You have an OPOS6UL board with the Wi-Fi/Bluetooth chip integrated.
  • You have an APF6 board with the Wi-Fi/Bluetooth chip integrated. The chip is on the APF6 Dual and Quad boards by default.
  • You have an APF51Dev board, then you're a lucky man because Bluetooth is integrated on the board ;-)
  • If you have an APF27Dev, then you can get a Wireless extension board with Wi-Fi/Bluetooth option from Armadeus Systems
  • Otherwise: get a cheap USB<->Bluetooth adapter (requires an USB Host port) or a RS232<->Bluetooth adapter

Tested USB adapters

Model Status
APF9328 / APF27
Chipset Comments
BELKIN - Mini Bluetooth Adapter Belkin Mini Bluetooth.jpg TBT KO Product: BLUETOOTH USB +EDR ADAPTER v2.1 UHE
Manufacturer: Broadcom Corp
# hciconfig hci1 up piscan

btusb_submit_intr_urb: hci1 urb c3bdac40 submission failed (28)
Can't init device hci1: Input/output error (5)

TRUST - Bluetooth 2.1 USB Adapter Trust Small Bluetooth.jpg TBT KO Product: BCM2046B1
Manufacturer: Broadcom
# hciconfig hci1 up piscan

btusb_submit_intr_urb: hci1 urb c3bdac40 submission failed (28)
Can't init device hci1: Input/output error (5)

RUEDUCOMMERCE - Mini adaptateur USB Bluetooth RDC USB Bluetooth.jpg TBT OK Manufacturer: Cambridge Silicon Radio
GIGABYTE - GN-BTD01 Gigabyte gn-btd01.jpg TBT OK Manufacturer: Cambridge Silicon Radio Bluetooth 1.1 ?
BELKIN - F8T003 v2 TBT OK Manufacturer: Cambridge Silicon Radio
D-LINK - DBT-122 TBT OK Product: BCM2035
Manufacturer: Broadcom


Software

Bluetooth Linux stack is divided into several parts:

  • kernel drivers
  • userland libraries/daemon (bluez)

Driver installation

$ make linux-menuconfig
[*] Networking support  --->
    <M>   Bluetooth subsystem support  --->
        --- Bluetooth subsystem support
            <M>   L2CAP protocol support 
            <M>   SCO links support
            <M>   RFCOMM protocol support
                [*]     RFCOMM TTY support
            <M>   BNEP protocol support
                [ ]     Multicast filter support (NEW)
                [ ]     Protocol filter support (NEW)
            <M>   HIDP protocol support
            Bluetooth device drivers  --->
                <M> HCI USB driver 
                < > HCI SDIO driver (NEW)
                <M> HCI UART driver
                    [*]   UART (H4) protocol support 
                    [*]   BCSP protocol support 
                    [ ]   HCILL protocol support (NEW)
                < > HCI BCM203x USB driver (NEW)
                < > HCI BPA10x USB driver (NEW)
                < > HCI BlueFRITZ! USB driver (NEW)
                < > HCI VHCI (Virtual HCI device) driver (NEW)
$ make

Bluez installation

(Done by default on APF51, APF6 and OPOS6UL)

$ make menuconfig
Package Selection for the target  --->
    ...
    [*] XML handling  --->
        [*]   libxml2
    ...
    [*] Hardware handling  --->
        [*]   dbus
              XML library to use (libxml2)
    ...
    Networking applications  --->
    [*] bluez
    [*] bluez-utils
$ make

Custom Bring up (each hardware may have a different init sequence)

OPOS6UL

OPOS6UL OPOS6ULNANO
OPOS6UL has a CM-43438 chip (based on BCM43438), connected to the i.MX6UL UART8 (/dev/ttymxc7) OPOS6ULNANO has a Murata module with CYM4343 chipset, connected to the i.MX6UL UART3 (/dev/ttymxc2)
# export BTRESET=42
# export BTDEV=/dev/ttymxc7
# export BTRESET=99
# export BTDEV=/dev/ttymxc2
  • Start the bluetooth deamon and attach your chipset to the kernel bluez UART driver:
# /usr/libexec/bluetooth/bluetoothd &
#
  • Wake up the chip
# echo $BTRESET > /sys/class/gpio/export
# echo out > /sys/class/gpio/gpio$BTRESET/direction
# echo 0 > /sys/class/gpio/gpio$BTRESET/value
# sleep 1
# echo 1 > /sys/class/gpio/gpio$BTRESET/value
# sleep 1
  • Attach the chip. Before running the following command, be sure that the file /etc/firmware/BCM43430A1.hcd exists (if not, it can be obtained (wget) here ? or here) !
# hciattach -t 30 $BTDEV bcm43xx 921600 flow
bcm43xx_init
Set Controller UART speed to 921600 bit/s
Flash firmware /etc/firmware/BCM43430A1.hcd
Set Controller UART speed to 921600 bit/s
Device setup complete
#

APF6

  • APF6 has a jorjin chip connected to the i.MX6 UART2 (ttymxc1)
  • Start the bluetooth deamon and attach your chipset to the kernel bluez UART driver:
# /usr/sbin/bluetoothd
NET: Registered protocol family 31
Bluetooth: HCI device and connection manager initialized
Bluetooth: HCI socket layer initialized
Bluetooth: L2CAP socket layer initialized
Bluetooth: SCO socket layer initialized
Bluetooth: BNEP (Ethernet Emulation) ver 1.3
Bluetooth: BNEP socket layer initialized

or if you are using BlueZ 5

# /usr/libexec/bluetooth/bluetoothd &
  • Wake up the chip
# export BTRESET=43
# echo $BTRESET > /sys/class/gpio/export
# echo out > /sys/class/gpio/gpio$BTRESET/direction
# echo 0 > /sys/class/gpio/gpio$BTRESET/value
# sleep 1
# echo 1 > /sys/class/gpio/gpio$BTRESET/value
# sleep 1
  • Attach the chip. Before running the following command, be sure that the file /lib/firmware/TIInit_7.6.15.bts exists ! You can download it here (click on the 'Raw' button)
# /usr/sbin/hciattach -s 115200 ttymxc1 texas 115200
Found a Texas Instruments' chip!
Firmware file : /lib/firmware/TIInit_7.6.15.bts
Loaded BTS script version 1
Device setup complete

#

APF51Dev

  • APF51Dev has a CSR BlueCore 4 chipset connected to the i.MX51 UART3 (ttymxc1)
  • On recent kernel using device tree, you have to "wake up" the chip:
# export BTRESET=60
# echo $BTRESET > /sys/class/gpio/export
# echo out > /sys/class/gpio/gpio$BTRESET/direction
# echo 0 > /sys/class/gpio/gpio$BTRESET/value
# sleep 1
# echo 1 > /sys/class/gpio/gpio$BTRESET/value
# sleep 1
  • Start the bluetooth deamon and attach your chipset to the kernel bluez UART driver:
# /usr/sbin/bluetoothd
# /usr/sbin/hciattach -s 115200 ttymxc1 csr 115200

CSR build ID 0x00-0x37
Bluetooth: Core ver 2.15
NET: Registered protocol family 31
Bluetooth: HCI device and connection manager initialized
Bluetooth: HCI socket layer initialized
Bluetooth: HCI UART driver ver 2.2
Bluetooth: HCI H4 protocol initialized
Bluetooth: HCI BCSP protocol initialized

APF27Dev + APW

  • APW has a CSR BlueCore 4 chipset connected to the i.MX27 serial port ttySMX5 (UART6)
  • Reset it:
# source /usr/bin/gpio_helpers.sh
# gpio_mode PB14 1
# gpio_set_value PB14 0; sleep 1; gpio_set_value PB14 1; sleep 1
  • Attach it to the kernel bluez UART driver:
# /usr/sbin/hciattach -s 921600 ttySMX5 csr 921600

USB module

  • Make sure your hardware is connected to the APF. If using an USB dongle, load corresponding driver:
# modprobe btusb
Bluetooth: Core ver 2.14
NET: Registered protocol family 31
Bluetooth: HCI device and connection manager initialized
Bluetooth: HCI socket layer initialized
Bluetooth: Generic Bluetooth USB driver ver 0.4
usbcore: registered new interface driver btusb

Common Bring up

  • Now that your hardware Bluetooth interface is up, check if it was correctly detected by BlueZ:
# hciconfig
hci0:   Type: USB or UART
        BD Address: 00:00:00:00:00:00 ACL MTU: 0:0 SCO MTU: 0:0
        DOWN
        RX bytes:0 acl:0 sco:0 events:0 errors:0
        TX bytes:0 acl:0 sco:0 commands:0 errors:0
  • If interface is DOWN, bring it up:
# hciconfig hci0 up piscan
  • Check your Bluetooth device is correctly initialized:
# hcitool dev
Devices:
        hci0    00:10:60:D1:92:0F
  • From Bluez5, everything can now be done with bluetoohctl interactive command:
# bluetoothctl 
[NEW] Controller 5C:F3:70:34:D6:66 BlueZ 5.43 [default]
[bluetooth]# power on
Changing power on succeeded
[CHG] Controller 5C:F3:70:34:D6:66 Powered: yes

[bluetooth]# scan on
Discovery started
[CHG] Controller 5C:F3:70:34:D6:66 Discovering: yes

[bluetooth]# agent on
Agent registered

Usage

Scanning network

  • To get surrounding devices addresses and names:
# hcitool scan
Scanning ...
  • To get surrounding devices addresses and classes:
# hcitool inq
Inquiring ...

Get info on a given device

# hcitool info 00:19:0E:xx:xx:xx
...

Pinging other devices

# l2ping 00:19:0E:xx:xx:xx
Ping: 00:19:0E:xx:xx:xx from 00:19:88:xx:xx:xx (data size 44) ...
44 bytes from 00:19:0E:xx:xx:xx id 0 time 38.05ms
44 bytes from 00:19:0E:xx:xx:xx id 1 time 37.09ms
...

Here 00:19:0E:xx:xx:xx is the Bluetooth MAC address of the Host.

Change advertising name

  • to change your module's name on Bluetooth network:
# hciconfig hci0 name ARMADEUS
  • From bluez5, you can also specify advertising name in /etc/bluetooth/main.conf file (%h = hostname, %d = device number):
[General]
Name = OPOS

Advanced usages: Setup a Terminal between a PC and your APF through Bluetooth

On the APF

  • the first step is to create the corresponding node for the future connection:
# mknod /dev/rfcomm0 c 216 0
  • then, listen to an incoming connection, on the rfcomm0 (here channel 7 is chosen):
# rfcomm -i hci0 listen /dev/rfcomm0 7 &
Note Note: If RFCOMM protocol is not built statically in your kernel, you might need to load it before use with:
# modprobe rfcomm 


Note Note: If you plan to connect from your smartphone, don't specify a channel number as most apps will try to connect to channel 1:
# rfcomm -i hci0 listen /dev/rfcomm0 &
  • and the last step, when the connection is open, is to connect a terminal (through getty) to the device /dev/rfcomm0:
# getty 38400 /dev/rfcomm0

On your Host PC

  • after the two first steps on the APF, you need to connect the PC to the APF with the same channel (7):
$ rfcomm connect 0 00:19:88:2B:xx:xx 7             (replace 00:19:88:2B:xx:xx with the Bluetooth @ of your APF)
  • and configure minicom ($HOME/.minirc.dfl):
pu port             /dev/rfcomm0
pu baudrate         38400
pu bits             8
pu parity           N
pu stopbits         1
  • when getty is running on the APF/OPOS, you could you connect with minicom:
$ minicom -o
  • it could be a good idea to create an additional user account for remotely login through Bluetooth, by following these instructions.

On your Android smartphone

  • install BlueTerm app
  • connect to right Bluetooth device... that's it ;-)

Advanced usages: Using a Bluetooth keyboard on your APF

The only thing needed after having a Bluetooth correctly configured is to use this command :

# hidd --connect keyboard_bdaddr

Advanced usages: Controlling your board from an android device (using rfcomm)

With your own App

The following section shows how to send commands to the board from an android device via Bluetooth. The goal is to control the two LEDs present on the board. An APF51Dev and a Samsung Galaxy Tab 2 are used in this example.

On the APF:

  • Enable the SPP profile. Here, it is using the channel 1.
# sdptool add --channel=1 SP
Serial Port service registered
#
  • Listen incoming connections on the channel 1. The script serial-server.sh is located in demos/android/android_remote_controller.
# rfcomm listen hci0 1 ./serial-server.sh {}
Waiting for connection on channel 1

On the android device:

With Bluetooth Electronics App

  • This application from keuwl.com, can be found on Google store and is very practical to design control panel on your Android device and make then control your Bluetooh device). It is generally used with Arduino and HC-06 Bluetooth module but we will see it works perfectly on APF/OPOS SoM.
  • Bluetooth Electronics uses RFCOMM to talk with device and so communication can be seen as a serial port
  • Again, use rfcomm command line tool to listen for your Android device connection:
[bluetooth]# power on
...
# rfcomm -i hci0 listen /dev/rfcomm0 &
  • Discover/pair/connect the APF/OPOS SoM from Bluetooth Electronics app
  • Then configure /dev/rfcomm0 created by rfcomm:
# stty -F /dev/rfcomm0 raw -echo -echoe -echok 9600
  • and use this new serial port from your application...
  • here a sample application is given; it runs on OPOS6UL and allows to light on/off the user LED, get processor temperature, get CPU usage and send text to LCD from Bluetooth Electronics panel. Serial protocol is very simple and can be guessed from source code.

Bluetooth Electronics.png

Advanced usages: Others

Note Note: On iOS, it is not possible to use standard Bluetooth devices that are not registered through MFi Program. The only way to communicate with your modules is to have a Bluetooth Low Energy interface and corresponding iOS software


Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE)

  • This protocol enhancement for low energy networks is only available on APF6, OPOS6UL and OPOS6UL_NANO modules with corresponding Wi-Fi+BLE hardware option.
  • To scan for BLE devices (hci0 interface should be up):
# hcitool hci0 lescan
  • Most operations can then be done with bluetoothctl:
# bluetoothctl

APF/OPOS as BLE device

  • Most of the job consist in developing a GATT server implementing desired functionalities/characteristics. Some examples are given in Bluez sources. For example (python is needed and bluetoothd should have been launched with --experimental option):
# hciconfig hci0 up
# /root/example-gatt-server
# hciconfig hci0 leadv         (to start BLE Advertising)
  • You can then use BLE Scanner or LightBlue Android/iOS app.
  • For "iBeacon" stuff, this tutorial may serve as a starting example.

Links